Acoustic survey: a technique for determining how many fish
are present in a population using echo-sounders.
Aggregate: the process where fish concentrate or group together.
Benthic Areas: areas at the bottom of the water column,
including the seabed.
Code of practice: a document that details how commercial
fishers have agreed to operate. A code of practice may include
both voluntary measures and those required by law.
Deepwater stocks: those with a centre of distribution below
Demersal: occurring on or near the seabed.
Dressed fish: fish that have been scaled, gutted, and had gills
removed. The head and tail are intact.
Drop/Dahn-lining: is a method suited for rocky areas and
areas with vertical type terrain. Instead of horizontal bottom lines,
vertical lines with snoods attached are used. Lines are secured
by a weight and marked with a dahn buoy.
Endemic: restricted or peculiar to a particular location or region.
Fauna: organisms of the animal world.
Fisheries Management Areas: geographic areas that are used
to define fish stocks.
Fish stock: a species of fish, shellfish or other marine life within
a particular area of the country that is treated as one ‘unit’ by
the fisheries management system. Catch allowances are set for
commercial, recreational and customary fishers for each fish stock
Mataitai: permanent reserves created in areas of traditional
importance to Māori for customary food gathering. Tangata
whenua manage and control non-commercial fishing through a
local committee. Tangata Tiaki/Kaitiaki can recommend bylaws
to manage customary food gathering, and issue customary
food authorisations. Commercial fishing is not allowed unless
recommended by the Tangata Tiaki/Kaitiaki. Māori and non-Māori
may fish in mataitai reserves.
Middle depths: depths below the outer edge of the continental
shelf and including the upper continental slope. In New Zealand
this is usually considered to be between 200 and 800 metres.
Pelagic: occurring on or near the surface of the sea.
Quota Management System (QMS): the term applied
to New Zealand’s fishery management system that works by
allocating rights to fish certain species as individual transferable
quotas. A limit is set on the amount of certain each fish stock that
may be taken in a given year.
Rahui: a ban on collecting/harvesting seafood in an area.
Rohe Moana: a particular area where Tangata Tiaki/Kaitiaki are
appointed to manage customary food gathering.
Spawning: the process by which fish reproduce.
Taiapure: local coastal fisheries that recognise an area’s special
significance to local iwi or hapū, either as a source of seafood,
or for spiritual or cultural reasons. A major difference between
mataitai and taiapure is that taiapure allow commercial fishing.
Tangata Tiaki/Kaitiaki: individuals or groups who can authorise
customary fishing within their rohe moana, in accordance with