EXAMPLES OF POSSIBLE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
INDICATORS OF ACHIEVEMENT OF CONTRIBUTING OUTCOMES
Outcomes and standards framework
Outcomes and standards are intended to describe what New Zealand wants to achieve from the use of fisheries and, to the extent that it is helpful to define it, how this should be achieved. Development of an outcomes and standards framework provides an opportunity for government and stakeholders to engage in determining what we want from fisheries. Such a framework also provides for more efficient management, since management interventions can be directed at achieving clearly stated outcomes.
Outcomes will define the desired results and achievements from the use of New Zealand’s fisheries. They are, in effect, the ‘public policy’ goals. Achieving certain outcomes may require changes to the statutory framework.
We already have an overall fishery outcome (the value New Zealanders obtain through the sustainable use of fisheries resources and protection of the aquatic environment is maximised).
We also have four interim contributing outcomes, which indicate how we wish to achieve the overall outcome. As appropriate, additional, more directive outcomes will be developed.
Two types of standards will be developed: performance standards and process standards.
Performance standards will specify performance in relation to fish stocks, fisheries and the environment within which they occur. They are designed to ensure achievement of fisheries outcomes. Usually, they will be expressed as minimum states to be met or exceeded. As far as possible, standards should provide for flexibility in how they are met, to allow for innovation and efficiency. Examples of potential performance standards include:
- QMS stocks must not be fished down to a level below a specified proportion of virgin biomass (or equivalent proxy)
- adverse effects of fishing on the aquatic environment are to be identified for each fishery and should not exceed specified levels.
Process standards will specify minimum requirements for the processes used to manage fisheries. Examples of potential process standards include:
- a minimum period of consultation on proposed changes to existing management measures is to be provided
- all management plans are to contain a risk assessment undertaken according to an agreed approach.
To develop an outcomes and standards framework, the Ministry will:
- develop, in consultation with tangata whenua and stakeholders, for government consideration:
- fisheries outcomes
- performance standards
- develop process standards, in consultation with tangata whenua and stakeholders.
Objectives-based approach to fisheries management
The Ministry’s SOI for 2004/08 described an enhanced management approach for fisheries:
‘[O]ne where the Ministry develops and progressively implements stock strategies for most fish species. Stakeholders will have opportunity to develop fisheries plans, either based on or independent of Ministry stock strategies.’ (p. 6–7)
In 2004/05 the Ministry undertook background work to provide the foundation for this approach and consulted with stakeholders on the proposed approach. Experience from the background work and feedback from tangata whenua and stakeholders has confirmed the importance of developing a clear linkage between the management objectives and the management interventions (‘strategies’) and fisheries services for a particular fishery. It has also become clear that government, working together with tangata whenua and stakeholders, is best able to develop the objectives that will drive the management interventions and services for a fishery, particularly in the absence of well-defined rights for the customary and noncommercial sectors.
Therefore, in this SOI we use the term ‘objectives-based approach to fisheries management’ to describe the Ministry process of developing management plans, which will replace the Stock Strategies proposed in previous Ministry documents.
An objectives-based approach to fisheries management will be used to develop management plans that specify what we want to achieve for specific fisheries (the objectives), and associated implementation strategies (including research, regulations and compliance) to achieve the objectives. Clear links will be established between management interventions and services in management plans and fisheries plans, and the objectives for the fishery. The plans – including multi-year plans where appropriate – will form the basis of Ministry advice to the Minister on statutory decisions regarding management measures, as well as decisions regarding the purchase of fisheries services.
Management plans will be facilitated by government, but developed in collaboration with relevant stakeholders, and will incorporate government, tangata whenua and stakeholder objectives. Management plans will, for the most part, be based on a stock or stock-complex. However, management plans may also relate to management of fisheries in locations of particular significance. Where appropriate, management plans could be approved as s11A fisheries plans. Approval under s11A would give increased certainty and may help fisheries stakeholders participate more effectively in coastal planning processes under the Resource Management Act 1991. However, it may also make it more difficult to amend a plan.
Tangata whenua-led and stakeholder-led initiatives to add value to fisheries will be encouraged. Such initiatives may either be incorporated within the management plans, or stand alongside them (for instance, where the stakeholder-led initiatives do not require any additional services or rules provided by the government). If appropriate, tangata whenua-led and stakeholderled initiatives could also become s11A fisheries plans.
The processes underpinning the development of management plans should enable a higher level of consensus within, and increasingly across, tangata whenua and stakeholder groups.
The Ministry’s role in relation to defining the objective for a management plan will be to ensure outcomes and standards are met, and to facilitate a tangata whenua and stakeholder consensus on objectives that increase the value to the fishery.
The key elements of the objectives-based approach are:
- setting objectives that meet or exceed any applicable standards and fisheries outcomes
- using risk assessment and analysis of costs and benefits to identify key management issues and evaluate alternative implementation strategies
- prioritising allocation of Ministry resources
- specifying services and management measures, and assigning responsibility for their delivery and implementation
- providing a clearer basis for for monitoring and reporting on the performance of fisheries management.
To use an objectives-based approach to fisheries management, the Ministry will undertake the following initiatives:
- work with tangata whenua and stakeholders to develop guidelines for the development of management plans, including a process to manage competing or irreconcilable objectives
- develop 2–3 management plans in 2005/06 as a ‘proof of concept’ and seek approval for them as fisheries plans under s11A of the Fisheries Act 1996
- evaluate tangata whenua-developed and stakeholderdeveloped plans for possible approval under s11A of the Fisheries Act 1996
- recommend the application of management measures and delivery of fisheries services specified in management plans for input into the Ministry priority-setting process for expenditure of resources.
A period of transition will be required as outcomes, standards and management plans are developed and implemented. In future years further management plans will be developed and implemented.
Current approaches to managing fisheries will need to be maintained while new management approaches are developed and implemented. This means that Ministry resources available to work on new approaches will have to be carefully balanced against requirements for ongoing management.
Sequencing outcomes, standards and management plans
The outcomes and standards framework should guide the development of management plans and fisheries plans. That is, objectives and strategies for the plans should be consistent with the government-set fisheries outcomes, and should meet or exceed any relevant performance standards. Conceptually, the decisions on outcomes and standards should precede the management planning processes.
In the absence of explicit fisheries outcomes and standards, and the importance of developing some management plans as a ‘proof of concept’, the Ministry will adopt a pragmatic approach to the sequencing. In 2005/06, we will proceed simultaneously on development of the outcomes and standards framework and development of management plans. The management plans will be guided by any relevant ‘interim’ outcomes and standards. As outcomes and standards are set, the existing and unfinished management plans (and fisheries plans) will be reviewed within 12 months to ensure the objectives and strategies are consistent with the outcomes and standards.
New outcomes and standards are likely to be developed over time. All plans should contain an explicit review date at which time changes to accommodate any new outcomes or standards can be undertaken.
Interim outcomes are:
- The health of the aquatic environment is protected
- People are able to realise the best value from the sustainable and efficient use of fisheries
- Crown obligations to Maori with respect to fisheries are delivered
- Credible fisheries management.
Interim standards will be derived from sources including:
- The Fisheries Act 1996
- Other legislative requirements
- National Plan of Action for Seabirds
- Sealion operational plan
- Proposed standards emerging from the management plans
- International obligations
- Deed of Settlement obligations
- Individual Treaty settlements with iwi.
The process of developing management plans may result in the proposed specification of a standard. In this case, the emerging standard will be proposed for government approval and, once approved, would apply across all relevant management plans.
Phasing in the new management approach
Moving toward this new approach to fisheries management will involve a number of internal changes within the Ministry.
This includes better integration of our services, a realignment of our existing processes, the development of new skills, and consideration of new governance and organisation arrangements.
Existing Ministry processes, such as the annual research planning round and sustainability measures process, will be adjusted to fit with the process of developing and reviewing management plans, and with the annual process to prioritise fisheries services. There will be a gradual move toward increased integration of Ministry processes through management plans.
MAINTAIN THE INTEGRITY OF EXISTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
The Ministry delivers a wide range of services designed to ensure effective management of fisheries – including policy development, consultation on statutory decisions, fisheries research, observer coverage and compliance. Maintaining the integrity of management frameworks and processes is important to support the rights and obligations associated with use of fisheries. In each of the service areas, the Ministry will aim for continued improvements in delivery and cost-effectiveness, as well as alignment with the priorities discussed above.
Fisheries policy advice
The Ministry will continue to develop and review policy and legal frameworks for the sustainable and efficient use of fisheries. Policy advice will focus primarily on giving effect to the priorities established in this SOI, especially the outcomes and standards framework, facilitating sustainable development, international fisheries issues, establishing a monitoring framework, and participation in wider marine management initiatives. A high priority will be placed on improving our engagement with tangata whenua and stakeholders in the process of developing policy advice.
In addition to the initiatives already discussed, the Ministry will provide policy advice on the impact and implementation of Treaty of Waitangi settlements, and respond to government requests for policy advice as they arise.
The Ministry will continue to gather and analyse data about New Zealand’s fisheries and marine biodiversity. Information will support scientific evaluation of the status of fisheries resources, the effects of fishing on the aquatic environment, alternative strategies and measures to give effect to the desired management strategy, and analysis of cultural, social and economic factors relevant to management decisions.
The Ministry will also undertake take the following initiatives:
- develop a system for providing information on the status of fish stocks in a more easily understood format
- develop a mechanism for making reports on ecosystem and environmental issues more accessible
- develop a more structured process for integrating ecosystem and environmental considerations into stock assessment documents.
The Ministry will continue to provide a series of baseline fisheries management services, including:
- leading development of management plans
- supporting statutory decision processes including the annual decisions on sustainability and utilisation, marine farming applications, and marine reserve concurrence
- providing utilisation and sustainability advice
- processing customary applications
- monitoring performance of fisheries management
- managing and disseminating fisheries management information
- creating, maintaining and reviewing service delivery standards.
The Ministry will continue to place high priority on achieving optimal levels of compliance with fisheries rules. Two linked goals support this objective: maximising voluntary compliance with fisheries rules by tangata whenua and stakeholders, and creating effective deterrence.
Key contributors to voluntary compliance are support and respect for the fisheries management regime and understanding of fisheries rules. Increasing voluntary compliance is supported by many of the initiatives listed under the new priorities already discussed, particularly improved engagement with tangata whenua, stakeholders and the public, and improved availability of information.
In addition to the initiatives already discussed, the Ministry will undertake the following initiatives to maximise voluntary compliance:
- increase the level of education services provided to noncommercial fishers about their responsibilities, the rules, and the rationale for those rules
- establish a Ministry/Industry compliance committee to resolve generic compliance issues
- develop processes and systems to enable the collection, collation and analysis of compliance information to use when reviewing policies, management plans and rules.
Creating effective deterrence means the cost of non-compliance is greater than the benefits of illegal activity. To create more effective deterrence, the Ministry will:
- develop a national enforcement strategy in collaboration with tangata whenua and fisheries stakeholder representatives
- develop processes and systems to collect, collate and analyse compliance information for use in better targeting enforcement resources
- build capability to monitor, detect and prosecute fisheries offences
- target enforcement effort at non-compliance in areas posing the greatest risks to the integrity of the fisheries management regime and its objectives – targeting poaching and black market activities will be an enforcement priority
- take hardline enforcement and prosecution action against deliberate serious offending
- build strong working relationships with New Zealand Defence Forces and other enforcement agencies to improve the cost-effective delivery of fisheries law enforcement services, within and beyond New Zealand fisheries waters.
To meet obligations under the Ma-ori Commercial Aquaculture Claims Settlement Act 2004, the Ministry will undertake the following initiatives:
- determine how much space is to be allocated to iwi in each region to meet Crown obligations in relation to existing marine farming space
- by 31 December 2007, begin to develop, in consultation with iwi, a plan to address any outstanding obligations in respect of Crown obligations in relation to existing marine farming space.